He fought his first election to the Karnataka Legislative assembly from Karkala in 1972. He represented this constituency for 6 consecutive terms. Throughout the years, he has held the posts of Minister in Charge of Industry, Finance, Education, Information, Tourism, Law and Parliamentary Affairs for the state of Karnataka.
Dr. Moily has also worked as Chairman of the Oversight Committee, appointed for implementation of Reservations for Other Backward Classes, by the Govt. of India. It enabled students from all strata of the society to avail world class educational opportunities through numerous Universities. He has worked as Chairman, Second Administrative Reforms Commission (GoI), Chairman, Revenue Reforms Commission, Govt. of Karnataka, Chairman, Tax Reforms Commission (GoK).
He is a well-known leader of the Indian National Congress from Karnataka and an important General Secretary of Congress. Already holding the posts of Chairman (cabinet rank) of the Administrative Reforms Commission, he was also the Chairman of the Oversight Committee on OBC quota. Dr. Moily has been given charge of the states of Andhra Pradesh and Assam and is also the Chairman of the Group to look into Future Challenges; the Media Department; the Department of Policy Planning and Coordination (DEPCO) in the AICC.
In the elections to the Mysore Legislative Assembly, held in March 1972, Dr. Moily secured a whopping majority of 67.73% of the votes from the Karkala Assembly constituency on a Congress (R) ticket. Later he was included in the DevrajUrs Ministry as a Minister of State for Small Scale industries (1974-77). In the Assembly elections held in Jan 1983, Dr. Moily secured 51.85% of the votes and was made Leader of the Opposition as the Congress (I) was defeated in the state. In the Assembly elections in 1989 the Congress staged a remarkable comeback and this time, he was re-elected from his home constituency Karkala as Minister of Law & Parliamentary Affairs, Information and Tourism and Youth Services and Commerce and Industries (1989-90).After the resignation of Bangarappa as Chief Minister of Karnataka in 1992, hewas called upon to succeed him. Dr. Moily, as CM of Karnataka was immensely popular and admired by all.
He was elected as the Member of Parliament in 2009 from Chikkaballapura Parliamentary Constituency. He held the post of Union Minister for Law, Justice and Company Affairs. Presently he is the Union Minister of Corporate Affairs.
A brief description of the positions served by Dr. Moily:
2011 - Present: Cabinet Minister of Corporate Affairs, Govt. of India
2009 – 2011: Cabinet Minister of Law and Justice, Govt. of India
2006 – 2009: Chairman of the Oversight Committee for implementation of 27 per cent reservation for OBCs in central educational institutions
2002 – 2004: Chairman, Revenue Reforms Commission
2000 – 2002: Chairman, Tax Reforms Commission
1992 – 1994: Chief Minister of Karnataka
1989 – 1992: Minister for Law, Youth Service, Culture, Information, Parliamentary Affairs and Education, Govt. of Karnataka
1983 – 1985: Leader of Opposition, Karnataka Assembly
1980 – 1982: Minister for Finance and Planning, Govt. of Karnataka
1974 – 1977: Minister for Small Scale Industries, Govt. of Karnataka